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Microscopy Reference Library

Aperture Correlation Microscopy

Aperture correlation microscopy is a structured illumination technique that employs a specialized spinning disk having a grid pattern to acquire images in both transmitted and reflected light modes. The resulting images are calculated using a series of algorithms after acquisition. The references listed in this section point to original research reports and review articles on aperture correlation microscopy.

Neil, M. M. A., Wilson, T. and Juskaitis, R.

A light efficient optically sectioning microscope.  Journal of Microscopy 189: 114-117 (1998).  One of the original research reports on aperture correlation microscopy. The authors discuss system geometry and compare it to that of a spinning disk microscope having a one-dimensional grid pattern rather than an array of pinholes. Also presented are images of optical sections recorded with the experimental instrument.

Langhorst, M. F., Schaffer, J. and Goetze, B.

Structure brings clarity: Structured illumination microscopy in cell biology.  Biotechnology Journal 4: 858-865 (2009).  The authors focus on structured illumination microscopy, which is a group of techniques utilizing a combination of optics and mathematics to obtain optical sections. One of the techniques reviewed in this paper is aperture correlation microscopy.

Juskaitis, R., Wilson, T., Neil, M. A. A. and Kozubek, M.

Efficient real-time confocal microscopy with white light sources.  Nature 383: 804-806 (1996).  In describing an early implementation of structured illumination with spinning disk microscopes, the authors describe a multiple point scanning instrument that uses a white light source. Basic concepts in configuration of the optical train are discussed as are imaging in fluorescence and reflected light mode.

Wilson, T., Juskaitis, R., Neil, M. A. A. and Kozubek, M.

Confocal microscopy by aperture correlation.  Optics Letters 21: 1879-1881 (1996).  A theoretical approach to generating real-time images in a spinning disk aperture correlation microscope using non-laser light sources. The analysis suggests that confocal images can be obtained with a dramatically increased light budget of 25 to 50 percent.

Heintzmann, R., Hanley, Q. S., Arndt-Jovin, D. and Jovin, T. M.

A dual path programmable array microscope (PAM): Simultaneous acquisition of conjugate and non-conjugate planes.  Journal of Microscopy 204: 119-135 (2002).  An excellent research report on an instrument similar in principle to aperture correlation. The PAM system uses a spatial light modulator to define two optical pathways for in-focus and out-of-focus light that is combined to generate optical sections.

Neil, M. A. A., Juskaitis, R. and Wilson, T.

Method of obtaining optical sectioning by using structured light in a conventional microscope.  Optics Letters 2: 1905-1907 (1997).  One of the original papers on structured illumination that examines generation of optical sections using a projected grid pattern having a single spatial frequency. Among the topics discussed in this report are the equations (applicable to aperture correlation) describing the axial response in terms of resolution.

Wilson, T., Juskaitis, R., Neil, M. A. A. and Kozubek, M.

Aperture correlation approach to confocal microscopy.  Proceedings of SPIE 2984: 21-30 (1997).  A general review article from Tony Wilson's group describing the concept and implementations of aperture correlation microscopy. Among the topics discussed are microscope configuration, resolution, imaging scenarios, optical sectioning, and light sources.

Reed, M. G., Wilson, T., Juskaitis, R. and Neil, M. A. A.

Surface profiling of combustion chamber deposits using aperture correlation confocal microscopy.  Journal of Microscopy 189: 188-191 (1998).  An excellent presentation of the application of confocal microscopy to generate height-coded maps of surface topography from non-reflective surfaces. The authors describe imaging of black carbonaceous deposits found in the combustion chambers of internal combustion engines.

Schaefer, L. H., Schuster, D. and Schaffer, J.

Structured illumination microscopy: Artifact analysis and reduction utilizing a parameter optimization approach  Journal of Microscopy 216: 165-174 (2004).  The authors discuss artifacts associated with structured illumination, such as residual stripe patterns originating from the illumination grating. A correction algorithmic approach is suggested that can be applied to images post-acquisition.